Ralph Capone – Big Brother to Al “Scarface” Capone

Ralph Capone Sr. was born on January 12, 1894 in Angri, Italy. He was one of nine siblings born to Gabriel and Teresa Capone, and the older brother to Al “Scarface” Capone, future boss of the Chicago outfit.

Ralph, his brother Vincenzo, and his mother arrived in the United States at Ellis Island on June 18, 1895. His father arrived several months earlier and established a home near the Navy yards in Brooklyn, New York. As his father worked in a nearby barbershop, Teresa stayed busy with their growing family. Four years after they moved to Brooklyn Ralph’s mother gave birth to Alphonse Capone. In 1910 the family moved from their home near the Navy yards to 38 Garfield Pl. in Park slope, Brooklyn.

Ralph married Filomena Muscato on September 24, 1915. He was 21 years old and she just 17. They had one child, a son named Ralph Gabriel Capone on April 17, 1917. They divorced in 1921.

During the time Ralph was establishing a family his younger brother Al was being groomed by a well-known Brooklyn gangster named Johnny Torrio. After Al married in 1918, Torrio beckoned him to Chicago in anticipation of the start of prohibition. Ralph accompanied his brother Al to Chicago taking his son, but leaving his wife behind.

In Chicago Ralph was placed in charge of the bottling plants for the Chicago version of the mafia formally called the Outfit. Torrio was attempting to monopolize nonalcoholic beverages that were commonly used in mixed drinks during the time the sale of alcohol was outlawed. The family became successful in their endeavors taking large profits for the Outfit. They even became the second largest soft drink vendor during the 1933 World’s Fair.

By 1930 his brother Al had complete control of the Chicago Outfit and nearly all of the illegal alcohol flowing in and out of Chicago. In April, 1930 Al was named as public enemy number one by the Chicago Crime Commission. Ralph was number three. Less than a year later his brother would be tried and convicted for tax evasion and sent to prison on an eleven year stretch. Frank Nitti was picked to be the new boss of the Chicago Outfit. Brother Ralph remained with the crime family and placed in charge Chicago’s Cotton Club, a front for syndicate gambling.

Though Ralph was the older brother of Al, he never held a position of power within the Outfit. He was a trusted front man and good earner, but stayed clear of the dirty side of the business choosing to earn money from legitimate business fronts. In 1932 Ralph, like his brother, was also convicted of tax evasion. He served three years.

After his release from prison, Capone moved to Mercer, Wisconsin where he purchased a home and eventually a hotel named “The Red Hotel” and attached tavern named “Billy’s Bar”. During his time in Wisconsin he still had ties to the Outfit as members of the crime family were frequent visitors of his hotel; a safe place to lay low. He died on November 22, 1974 of natural causes in Hurley, Wisconsin.

Alphonse Gabriel “Al” Capone – From Obscurity to Chicago Outfit Boss

Alphonse Gabriel “Scarface” Capone led Chicago’s Mafia during its Prohibition heyday, rising from obscurity as a Brooklyn tough to become the best-known mobster in America. Capone’s empire encompassed illegal liquor, gambling and prostitution in Chicago during the 1920s. He reaped a reputation among many as the most violent man in the country while convincing others he was just a businessman supplying a service to a thirsty public.

Hundreds of people were killed on his orders, and he murdered several himself, but he was never convicted of a violent crime. In the end he was sent away for tax evasion. By the time he got out, he had gone insane and the world of organized crime had passed him by. But he died leaving a legacy of mayhem that has yet to be surpassed.

Al Capone was born in Brooklyn on January 17, 1899, to Italian immigrants Gabriele and Teresina Capone. His father cut hair for a living; his mother sewed. While two of his brothers went on to join him in bootlegging, a third became a federal agent.

After hitting a teacher, Capone was expelled from school at 14. For a time he ran with small-time gangs such as the Bowery Boys and the Junior Forty Thieves, then moved up to the notorious Five Points Gang that controlled criminal activity in Lower Manhattan. He soon fell under the eye of Giovanni “Papa Johnny” Torrio, owner of a Brooklyn billiards hall and leader of a criminal syndicate involved in gambling, prostitution and opium trafficking.

In 1917 Capone was hired as a bartender at the Harvard Inn, a Coney Island tavern owned by Torrio’s partner, Frankie Yale. It was there that Capone earned his famous nickname: He made a lewd pass at a woman, and her brother cut him three times across the left side of his face. Fellow hoods took to calling him “Scarface,” though not in his presence.

While working for Yale the next year, Capone got into a fight with another gangster that led to tensions in the Brooklyn underworld. He also became a suspect in a murder investigation. To protect him, Yale sent him to Chicago, where Torrio had joined his uncle by marriage, mob boss Giacomo “Big Jim” Colosimo.

Prohibition arrived in 1919 and provided a golden opportunity for the so-called Chicago Outfit, that city’s branch of the American Mafia. The city is centrally located, with ample water and rail access, and it made the perfect centerpiece of a bootlegging empire.

But Colosimo didn’t want to expand, so Torrio had him killed. Yale and Capone have each been considered suspects. With Colosimo gone, Torrio took over the Outfit, and Capone rose to prominence within its ranks.


Throughout the early 1920s, Capone and Torrio built a powerful liquor business centered on the South Side and the neighboring town of Cicero. They competed primarily against the North Side Gang led by Irish-American mobster Dean O’Banion. Capone quickly built a corrupt political machine to back him, laying siege to Cicero, where he rigged elections and installed a puppet government in 1924.

That year, O’Banion, learning one of his breweries was about to be raided, sold it to Torrio. Torrio ended up in jail and vowed revenge. He got it: O’Banion was gunned down in his flower shop a few months later. All-out war followed, and Capone reaped the rewards.

O’Banion’s men tried to assassinate Torrio but failed. The experience convinced him he’d had enough, and he quit, handing the reins to Capone.

Capone now had his hands on a racketeering empire that pulled in $100 million a year. Revenue came from gambling, prostitution and extortion, but mostly from booze. This enterprise required political corruption on a massive scale and fueled street violence so frequent it became routine.

Capone funneled regular bribes to Chicago Mayor William “Big Bill” Thompson, who ran the city from 1917 to 1923 and 1927 to 1931. Capone also had police officers, judges and other public figures in his pocket. Chicago elected a reform mayor in 1923, and crime dropped, but even that barely put a dent in Capone’s operations before Thompson returned.

As a result of the Outfit’s free reign, violence blossomed. Scores of people died in gun battles and executions, while the mob used beatings and bombings to intimidate competitors, businessmen, witnesses and jurors. Capone’s organization continued to battle the North Side Gang, now run by George “Bugs” Moran. Moran tried to kill Capone more than once but never hit him.

The violence reached a head in February 1929 in a garage at 2122 North Clark Street. The backlash it created finally brought Capone to his knees.

Moran and his men had recently killed two of Capone’s top mobsters and were muscling in on Outfit territory. In retaliation, Capone sent gunmen dressed as cops to the garage, where they expected to find Moran. The assassins announced a “raid,” lined seven North Side men against a wall, and shot them to pieces. But Moran, who was running late, missed his own execution.

Newspapers published gruesome photos of the scene, and the public demanded justice. Capone, who had long tried to cover his violent ways by cultivating a reputation as a simple businessman meeting a public demand for alcohol, had gone a step too far.

No one was ever tried for the “St. Valentine’s Day Massacre,” but the outcry fueled a growing effort to prosecute Capone. He was arrested in Philadelphia in 1929 on a weapons charge and served nine months in jail. It was the beginning of a downward spiral.

The year before, a Treasury agent named Fred Wilson had begun an investigation into Capone’s income taxes. Under a recent Supreme Court ruling, even criminals were required to pay taxes. Capone made millions but had never reported a dollar in income or paid a dime to the government.

He was charged with tax evasion in 1931 and tried in Chicago. He attempted to bribe and threaten the jurors, but the

Scarface Capone on the courthouse steps

judge caught wind and switched juries just before proceedings began.

In the end, Capone was convicted and sentenced to 11 years in federal prison. He served seven, most of them at Alcatraz in San Francisco Bay.

By the time he was released, Capone had been reduced to a shell. Fellow inmates disrespected him, he lost his influence with the Outfit, and a case of syphilis contracted in his youth drove him insane. Scarface spent the last years of his life in Florida, prisoner to delusions that old enemies were still out to get him. He died there of a heart attack on January 25, 1947.

Chicago Outfit

The Chicago Outfit is that city’s branch of the American Mafia. Its modern organization dates to the beer

Alphonse Gabriel “Al” Capone, the most powerful leader of the Chicago Outfit

wars of Prohibition and its most notorious leader, Al Capone. It has a seat, along with the Five Families of New York City, on the Commission that governs the Italian mob in America.

The Outfit’s roots reach back to the early 1900s and an influx of Italian immigrants to Chicago. Street gangs, some of them Italian in background, controlled various criminal activities in the city.

At the same time, extortionists practiced the “Black Hand” scheme imported from Italy. This involved threatening residents with violence unless money was paid. Extortion letters were stamped with a hand in ink, hence the name. Many Black Hands worked independently, but some joined forces, forming organized criminal syndicates.

 But the Chicago Outfit truly came into its own in the 1920s. Giacomo “Big Jim” Colosimo, who ran hundreds of brothels, had solidified power over large portions of the underworld during the Black Hand era. He welcomed his nephew, Giovanni “Papa Johnny” Torrio, to the scene, and in 1919 Torrio introduced a new face: Alphonse “Scarface” Capone.

Prohibition took effect in 1919, but Chicago, like other cities, simply sent its liquor underground. Torrio urged his boss to go into the booze business, but Colosimo refused. To remove this impediment, Torrio had Colosimo killed. What followed were the “beer wars,” the most violent episode of organized crime in American history.

Charles Dean O’Banion founded the North Side Gang. His main nemisis was Johnny Torrio and Al Capone

Before Prohibition, the Outfit had focused on gambling and prostitution. Now that bootlegging had joined the repertoire, frequent bouts of murder followed. Torrio’s gang controlled the South Side and the Loop but soon began to expand into the Gold Coast, where Dean O’Banion and the Irish-American North Side Gang ruled.

For a while the two sides managed a truce, but it didn’t last long. O’Banion scammed Torrio out of half a million dollars, and Torrio retaliated. On November 10, 1924, O’Banion was murdered in his flower shop. His death resulted in all-out urban warfare.

 Tommy-gunfire raged back and forth. The North Siders tried to kill Torrio but failed. The experience jarred him, and he retired. He handed the reins of the Outfit to Capone, whose fortunes soared.

Then, in 1929, after five years of gunfire between the North and South sides, Capone made a move intended to cripple his enemies. It had the opposite effect. On February 14, he sent a group of men to a garage on North

 Clark Street, where they unloaded their guns into seven members of the North Side Gang. The “St. Valentine’s Day Massacre” drew so much negative publicity the city was forced to crack down on organized crime.

The federal government joined the effort, prosecuting Capone for tax evasion. He went to prison, and his criminal enterprise suffered without him, but it didn’t die. In fact, it soon bounced back and began to spread its wings.

 After Capone left in 1932, control of the Outfit passed to Frank “The Enforcer” Nitti, a former bodyguard who had risen to become a leader of the organization’s bootlegging operations. But the real decisions were made by his underboss, Paul “The Waiter” Ricca.

When Prohibition ended in 1933, the Outfit was forced to focus on other criminal enterprises, such as prostitution, labor racketeering and especially gambling. Under Nitti and Ricca, it also began to expand. The organization set up shop in Wisconsin, Missouri, Los Angeles and Las Vegas, where it eventually took over control of legal casinos from the Five Families.

These expansion tactics led to a major scandal and a raft of indictments in 1943, when the FBI caught Chicago gangsters shaking down the movie industry in Hollywood. Nitti was set to take the blame, but he had served time before, was severely claustrophobic, and decided he couldn’t handle prison again. Instead he shot himself in the head while wandering a Chicago rail yard.

Ricca formally became boss and appointed Tony “Joe Batters” Accardo his lieutenant. Together they ran the Outfit for the next 30 years, though their titles and roles changed. After Ricca’s death in 1972, Accardo led the Outfit for another 20 years. Accardo is considered one of the smartest bosses of the American Mafia: Over a criminal career that spanned 70 years, he spent only one night behind bars.

The Outfit grew to encompass most mob operations in the Western United States during the Ricca-Accardo years. It reached its peak during the 1960s, when Accardo’s flashy front man, Sam “Momo” Giancana, attempted to orchestrate the assassination of Fidel Castro for the CIA and briefly had an affair with a woman who was also sleeping with President John F. Kennedy. Giancana was kicked out of the Outfit in 1966 and murdered in 1975.

His job as titular head of the Outfit was filled by Joey “Doves” Aiuppa, who held that position until his conviction in 1986 for skimming profits from Las Vegas casinos. Though he spent 11 years in prison, he had his revenge: He allegedly ordered one of the most famous hits in Mafia history, the murders of Michael and Tony “The Ant” Spilotro, who were beaten, strangled and buried in an Indiana cornfield in retaliation for the mismanagement of the casinos. These killings, and the Las Vegas history that led to them, were depicted in the movie Casino.

After Aiuppa went to prison, control of the Outfit was handed to several other mobsters, while James “Little Jimmy” Marcello acted as front man. In the years to follow, the organization began to lose much of its power in Chicago and the Western United States. Las Vegas went legitimate, labor unions began to purge themselves of gangsters, and federal trials sent large numbers of Mafiosi to prison for long terms.

The Outfit was dealt perhaps its most crushing blow in 2007. The FBI managed to flip several high-ranking members in an operation dubbed ” Family Secrets,” one of the most successful federal investigations of organized crime. The resulting trial ended with the conviction of five men on charges of conspiracy and racketeering for crimes that included several murders. Another six pleaded guilty, two died before trial and a ninth was too ill to face prosecution. Marcello was convicted in part for the murder of the Spilotro brothers. The Outfit has dwindled in recent years, but it isn’t dead. As the Family Secrets investigation demonstrated, racketeering is still at the heart of its operations. It doesn’t have the reach it once did, but it remains a major part of the world of crime in Chicago.

“Machine Gun” Jack McGurn – St. Valentines Day Massacre

     “Machine Gun” Jack McGurn was an Italian-American born in Licata, Sicily population 39,000 on July 2, 1902. His birth name was Vincenzo Gibaldi, however he had other variations such as Vincent Gebardi, and Vincenzo Demory.

At four years old he and his mother, Giuseppa Verderame, just 24 years old according to the ships manifest arrived at Ellis Island on November 24, 1906. They arrived, just the two of them, and awaited Jack’s brother and father who would arrive later in the year.

As a teenager McGurn grew up in the Chicago slums having to fight his way in a difficult neighborhood. He changed his name to “Battling” Jack McGurn and took up a career in boxing. The name McGurn, is Irish, and at the time Irish boxers got better bookings than Italians. He boxed from 1921 to 1923 and was referred to as the local 147 pounder from the West side.

McGurn didn’t run with the local street gangs, he focused on boxing, worked part-time and minded his own business. It wasn’t until his stepfather was assassinated by gang extortionists on January 28, 1923, that McGurn turned to a life of crime. Three men were responsible for his stepfather’s slaying, and McGurn took it upon himself to avenge the murder and killed all three. This act provided his introduction to Capone in late 1923 as a recruit for the Circus gang, a Capone subgroup run by Claude “Screwy Moore” Maddox.

McGurn’s specialty in the Circus gang was as a bodyguard and killer. Capone noticed these attributes and used McGurn as his personal bodyguard. McGurn can be seen everywhere Capone went, football and baseball games, and nightclubs. It’s been said that McGurn was not only a ruthless killer but also kept intelligence on Capone rivals having uncovered several murder plots before any attempts took place.

On September 5, 1929, gangsters and professional hit men Edward Westcott and Frank Cawley were found killed in a Chicago suburb. Both men had Buffalo Nickels pressed into their hands.

On December 12, 1930, Rudolph Marino and his brother Sam were found dead; murdered gangland style. Both men also had Buffalo Nickels pressed into their hand, and although there is no proof, the Buffalo nickel is said to be a calling card of a McGurn hit.

Although feared, McGurn was also the occasional target of assassination. In one such situation members of the deadly Northsiders gang almost cut McGurn in half by machine gun fire as he walked through the smoke shop in the McCormick hotel. The hitmen spotted McGurn from the street; both ran in one with the Thompson machine gun and the other a 45 caliber automatic revolver. The Thompson machine gun cut through McGurn’s right lung, chest, and arm as he dove for cover behind a partition wall. Fearing return fire the hitmen fled leaving McGurn to hobble to his feet and back to his hotel room, number 906 where he asked a bell boy to find a doctor.

After McGurn recovered he was once again placed at Al Capone side. Capone welcomed him back with a plan to rid themselves of the Northsider’s and Bugs Moran gang once and for all. Their meeting was the beginning plans of the St. Valentine’s Day massacre.

On February 14, 1929 five members and the North Side gang were lined up against

Police re-enactment of the shooting using the same garage, and wall, the men were killed one day earlier.

a garage wall and executed. Two of the shooters were dressed as uniformed police officers while the others wore suits, ties, overcoats and hats, according to the witnesses who saw the “police” leading the other men at gunpoint out of the garage after the shooting. Bugs Moran escaped the slaughter arriving late to the meeting.

McGurn was questioned immediately after the slaying and provided an alibi stating he was in a hotel with his girlfriend Louise Rolfe who claimed they spent the entire day together. McGurn was charged in the case but never brought to trial due in large part to his alibi.

In April 1930 chairman of the Chicago crime commission published a nationwide list of public enemy’s that were corrupt in Chicago and its suburbs. Machine Gun Jack McGurn was fourth on the list. The notoriety McGurn received from the list cause the Outfit to turn their backs on him. The spotlight was too great. Having nowhere to turn McGurn, an avid golfer since youth, attempted a career as a professional. He had been a silent partner in a golf course on Western Avenue for many years and played well.

McGurn and brother Anthony after being pulled off the golf course and placed in a police lineup.

On August 25, 1933 the Western Open Golf Championships began at Olympia Fields Country Club a southern suburb of Olympia Fields Illinois. McGurn entered the competition using an alias, Vincent Gebhadi where he carded a 13 over par 83 on his first day. The next morning the name Gebhardi was published on a list of golfers set to tee off for day to when an alert police officer noticed the name as an alias for McGurn. The police chief was notified who subsequently sent two sergeants and five uniformed officers to arrest him. McGurn was arrested on the seventh green; however he politely requested to finish the round. The officers agreed and became part of his gallery escorting him until he finished a 16 over par 86, 14 strokes above making the cut. With his cover blown McGurn’s golf career was all but over. He played with his brother Anthony and was arrested on the course several times after that.

On February 15, 1936, McGurn entered a bowling alley at 805 Milwaukee Ave. with two so-called friends. Upon setting up his bowling game another man entered and yelled for everyone to stand still.

He said, “You move and you die.”

The two men accompanying McGurn, and the third man subsequently formed a semi circle around him, pulled out their guns, and fired. McGurn was hit several times; three in the head and once in the back before collapsing to the floor; payback for the massacre of the North Side gang seven years earlier.

“Machine Gun” Jack McGurn after he was shot and killed.


Contrary to popular belief, there was no Valentine card found on his body, however left at the front desk a note states “you lost your dough and handsome houses, but things could be worse you know at least you haven’t lost your trousers”.

On March 2, 1936, less than a month after McGurn was gunned down his brother Anthony was shot by three men in a Chicago pool hall after stating he knew who killed Jack.

Giovanni “Papa Johnny” Torrio – Chicago Outfit Boss in the 1920’s

Giovanni “Papa Johnny” Torrio ran Chicago’s Mafia in the 1920s, building it from a prostitution racket into an illegal liquor empire. His feud with Irish-American bootleggers led to the worst violence in the history of American organized crime and paved the way for Al Capone. Later in his life, Torrio helped create the Commission that still governs the mob in America.

No one seems to know for sure where Torrio was born, but it was somewhere in southern Italy on January 20, 1882. His father died when he was two years old, and his mother took him to New York City shortly after.

Torrio grew up on the Lower East Side of Manhattan, a slum neighborhood populated by immigrants. His mother remarried, and his stepfather, who owned a grocery store, hired him as a porter. But the store was really an illegal liquor front and served as Torrio’s introduction to crime.

He soon joined a group of teenage boys known as the James Street Gang and rose to become their leader. The James Streeters were allied with the notorious Five Points Gang of lower Manhattan.

Torrio saved enough money to open a billiards hall in Brooklyn where his boys could hang out and orchestrate crimes. The parlor drew a number of rising young criminals, including Alphonse “Scarface” Capone, better known as Al.

Before long Torrio’s business success drew the attention of Paulo Vaccarelli, also known as Paul Kelly. Kelly ran the Five Points Gang and, in the early 1900s, made Torrio his lieutenant. Torrio quickly began to take after his new mentor, transforming his image from that of a street thug into that of a well-dressed businessman with legitimate interests. The change earned Torrio the nickname “The Fox.”

Torrio and his men dabbled in a number of rackets, including prostitution and opium trafficking, but their biggest money-earner was gambling, specifically the numbers game. He also had interests in legitimate businesses, including his billiards hall and a Coney Island tavern named the Harvard Inn. It was there that Torrio, along with his associate, Frankie Yale, first hired Capone.

While Torrio was making his rise in New York, his uncle by marriage, Giacomo “Big Jim” Colosimo, was consolidating control over much of the underworld in Chicago. His enterprise had come to be known simply as the Chicago Outfit.

In 1909 Big Jim was targeted by extortionists, and he called on Torrio to help. Thugs sent Colosimo a “Black Hand” letter, part of a scheme in which immigrants threatened residents with violence unless they paid. Colosimo had engaged in the practice himself, and his wealth now made him a target.

To deal with the problem, he brought Torrio to Chicago to kill the extortionists. A few years later, Colosimo invited his nephew to return and made him second in command.

Torrio put Yale in charge of his New York rackets and moved west, where he and Colosimo continued to build the Outfit’s power and profits, centered around a network of brothels. In 1918 Capone became a suspect in a murder investigation and generated tension in the Brooklyn Mafia by brawling with another gangster, so Yale sent him to Chicago. Torrio put Capone to work in the Outfit.

Then, in 1919, Prohibition arrived and promised millions in profits for organized crime. But Colosimo refused to take part in illegal liquor distribution. He already owned a restaurant that made thousands selling booze to the rich and famous, and he feared interference by the federal government should he expand further into bootlegging.

Torrio was angered by this, and things got worse when Colosimo divorced his aunt. On May 11, 1921, Torrio sent Colosimo to his restaurant to meet with bootleggers. When they never arrived, Colosimo left in anger. On his way out the door, an assassin leapt from the cloak room and gunned him down.

No one was ever charged with the murder, but both Yale and Capone have long been considered suspects. Torrio

Big Jim Colosimo

immediately took over the Outfit and opened the tap on a liquor empire unrivaled in the United States.

Over the next few years, with Capone’s help, Torrio turned the Outfit into a criminal machine. Bootlegging brought in $100 million a year at the height of Prohibition. But it came at a price to both Torrio and Chicago.

The Outfit controlled most of the liquor trade on the South Side, but the North Side was dominated by an Irish-American bootlegging gang led by Dean O’Banion. The two sides fought bitterly for control of the city. At times they managed a tentative peace, but it never lasted.

In 1924, O’Banion sold a brewery to Torrio just before it was raided by police. Torrio, who was arrested and earned a nine-month prison sentence, vowed revenge. On November 10, O’Banion was murdered by gunmen in his flower shop.

The so-called “beer wars,” the most violent episode of organized crime in American history, followed. Mobsters, police, public officials and innocent bystanders were murdered across the city over the next decade. Politicians were bought off, voters beaten, jurors intimidated and almost every element of the political and judicial systems undermined.

Two months after the assassination, on January 24, 1925, O’Banion’s men struck back.  Torrio was returning to his apartment with his wife, Anna, when North Side gangsters Hymie Weiss, George “Bugs” Moran and Vincent “The Schemer” Drucci met him and unloaded their guns into him. Torrio survived, but only barely.

Following surgery and a long recovery, he decided to go into semi-retirement. He handed the Outfit to Capone. His final words as boss: “It’s all yours, Al. Me? I’m quitting. It’s Europe for me.” Torrio left for Italy.

He returned to the United States to testify at Capone’s trial for tax evasion in 1931 and went on to serve as a mentor to Salvatore “Lucky” Luciano and the Genovese crime family of New York. He also came up with the idea behind the National Crime Syndicate, an organization of Italian and Jewish mobsters that operated during the 1930s and ’40s. The Syndicate eventually became the Commission, the governing body of the Italian Mafia in America.      In 1939 Torrio pleaded guilty to tax evasion, the same crime that brought down Al Capone. Upon his release from Leavenworth prison two years later, he left crime and went into the New York real estate business.

Torrio suffered a heart attack on April 16, 1957, while sitting in a barber’s chair, and died a few hours later. He had become so obscure since leaving the Mafia that his death went unnoticed by the press until his will was probated three weeks later.

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